index_img1.gif Nazi Germany
The Rise of Hitler Spread of Hitler's Nazi Power Nazis In Africa The Holocaust  Concentration Camps Hitler's Last Stand
index_img2.gif 1. The Rise of Hitler
Early Life
index_img3.gif Hitler was born on April 20 1889.
At the age of three Hitler moved to Passau.
Some evidence support the theory that Hitler's father beat him when he was a child.
Hitler had a talent for art. He attended Realschule to take art. At the age of 16 Hitler dropped out of school.
In 1907 Hitler's mother died of breast cancer while being treated by a Jewish doctor.
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Hitler Joins the DAP (It can be argued that because Hitler's mother died while in the care of a Jewish doctor he blamed the Jewish faith for her death and for everything else that went wrong.)
Hitler went to Vienna in 1906 in an attempt to get into an art school. He was however denied this and was forced into homelessness until 1913 when he moved to Munich to escape conscription.
index_img4.gif In 1914 Hitler was forced into military service and fought in the first world war.
Military Service
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In 1914 Hitler was screened by the Austrian military but was found unfit to serve. Later that year he joins the Bavarian military.
In 1918 Hitler was temporarily blinded by an enemy gas attack.
index_img5.gif Hitler was one of the most decorated soldiers of WWI. In total he earned two Iron Crosses, a Bavarian Military Medal, and the Cross of Military Merit.
DAP: German Workers Party
"A tiny group of extreme nationalists and anti-Semites who saw their role as trying to win over German workers from the internationalist Social Democratic Party and, in the aftermath of defeat and revolution, to persuade people that Jews were primarily responsible for Germany's plight."
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Hitler Joins the DAP
Hitler joined the DAP in 1919 in Munich.
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NSDAP: National Socialist German Workers Party
Hitler takes Leadership
By 1920 the DAP had been changed to the NSDAP (Nazi party for short.) In 1921 Hitler became the parties leader or in Germany, Fuhrer. Hitler also added a paramilitary squad, the Sturmabteilung, that at its height contained roughly 400,000 men, 4 times the size of the German army.
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Hitler's Charisma (The main reason why Hitler took control was his charisma.)
Hitler's Charisma
The main reason why Hitler was able to take control so well was due to his charisma.
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Hitler takes Leadership (The main reason why Hitler took control was his charisma.)
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Nazi Party Rallies
"1927 and 1929 were the first years that the National Socialists held their so-called Party Rallies in the Luitpoldhain in Nuremberg. In 1933 Nuremberg was officially designated the "City of the Reichsparteitage". They created a link between the Nazi movement and the great past of the Imperial City of Nuremberg, a city associated with the splendour of past Emperors and home to the medieval Imperial Diets. The Nazi Party Rallies were held every year in September, up until 1938. They lasted a week and drew as many as one million people to Nuremberg from all over Germany."
index_img6.gif Joseph Goebbels
Joseph joined the party in 1929 as the parties new propaganda chief. He took advantage of the resentments felt by the German people during the depression which was a side effect of the war. He had a belief that propaganda was not meant to stir emotions and thought but to stop them. Joseph was an odd member of the Nazi party as he had a club foot and was not the ideal Aryan.
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NSDAP: National Socialist German Workers Party (Was the propaganda chief of the Nazi party.)
War Propaganda
Because of fascist censorship most of the negative news regarding the war was either completely hidden from the public or made into a victory. In contrast the victories could sometimes be blown out of proportion.
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The Invasion of Poland
In 1934 Germany signed a non-aggression treaty with Poland.
In 1939 the German army invaded Poland and managed to take it in weeks. This led to the start of WWII.
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WWII (The invasion of Poland is what started WWII.)
The Invasion of Russia
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Before Germany's invasion of Poland, they agreed to a non aggression treaty with Soviet Russia.
In 1941 Germany invaded Russia. This was met with success. Unfortunately for Hitler though the German forces were almost decimated by the harsh Russian Winter.
In 1942 Hitler called for the first retreat of the war after German forces were attacked by Russian forces.
In the battle of Stalingrad Nazi forces were beaten by Soviet forces. This led to the Nazi army leaving Russia and their eventual defeat.
index_img7.gif 2. Spread of Hitler's Nazi Power
The Tripartite Pact
A pact that established Italy, Germany and Japan as the three Axis powers signed on September 27, 1940
Germany and the Nazis had many other allies, though these were considered minor allies.
Some included: Hungary, Finland, Romania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia
Italy was as much a nuisance it was helpful to Hitler.
Hitler had no respect for Mussolini.
Italy's failed invasion of Greece delayed Germany's invasion of Russia by four weeks as Germany turned to its aid.
Japan refused to attack Russia.
1938: Hitler annexes Austria
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1939: Germany invades Czechoslovakia
September 1939: Germany invades Poland
this is the move that starts World War II
1939-1940: Germany occupies Denmark and Norway
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May 10 1940: Germany occupies Belgium and Holland
June 27 1940: France surrenders to Germany
August 1941: Nazi's reach Leningrad
October 1941: attack of Moscow begins
September 1942: Germany attacks Stalingrad
Living space for the Aryan race, space for it to expand.
One of the reasons for Hitler's expansionist policies.
Map of Germany's Expansion under Hitler
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index_img9.gif 3. Nazis In Africa
North African Campaign
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index_img10.gif Italian Dictator Benito Mussolini Joined Germany in the war.
They Declared war on the United Kingdom and France.
September 1940: Italian colonial forces in Lybia staged a limited invasion of Egypt.
The British troops were outnumbered 500,000 to 35,00. The British lost.
January 1941: 'Afrika Korps' were sent to Lybia to reinforce the Italians.
The German "Deutsches Afrikakorps" was the original German expeditionary force in Libya and Egypt during the North African Campaign of World War II. 
The Battle of El Alamein
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Started October 1942, ended May 1943.
Germans were outnumbered and were stuck between the British and American troops.
Germans surrendered in May 1943, ending the war in Africa.
General Erwin Rommel
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index_img11.gif "Desert Fox"
Commanded the new Deutsches Afrika Korps.
Successfully drove the British 8th army out of Libya.
His army lost at the battle of El Alamein.
February 1944 Rommel was commanded by Hitler to be commander of the Atlantic wall.
The beaches of Normandy were covered in his anti-tank traps.
Rommel died from his wounds on October 14, 1944.
index_img12.gif 4. The Holocaust
The Nazi Genocide
“Holocaust” is Greek for “whole burning," a.k.a. Ha-Shoah. Three main stages: deportation, segregation, extermination.
Start of WWII: approximately 12 million Jewish people lived in Europe. End of WWII: number was reduced by half. Only 10% of the Jewish children living in Europe survived the Holocaust.
Occurred before WWII began; Jews were initially excluded from society. Identification: Jews forced to wear the yellow Star of David. Hitler and the Nazis: stripping of rights, boycotting shops, taking away citizenship, and sterilizing of the Jews.
It was not only Jewish people who suffered; while Jewish peoples wore the yellow Star of David, other coloured stars differentiated other types of prisoners. Red triangle - Political Prisoners. Pink triangle - Homosexuals. Purple triangle - Jehovah's Witnesses (detained for refusing to serve in the army). Green triangle - Common Criminals. Others included Poles, Czechs, Greeks, Serbs, Ukrainians, Gypsies, the physically and mentally handicapped, and trade unionists.
It is estimated that these "others" amount to nearly 5 million deaths over the duration of the Holocaust.
Nearly 1 in every 10 of the Jews left in the German Reich were rounded up for detention in concentration camps.
Krystalnacht: Night of Broken Glass. November 9, 1938: using the pretence of revenge for the assassination of a minor German foreign minister in Paris, Nazi SA Stormtroopers were ecouraged to begin street violence against Jewish shops, synagogues, and institutions. In all, 200 synagogues were burned, homes were destroyed with axes and sledgehammers, people were thrown from windows into the street, kicked to death, beaten with fists and truncheons, stabbed, and shot. Torah scrolls, and Jewish works of history and philosophy were burned. The violence left 100 dead.
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A train station on the way to a concentration camp.
Jews were violently removed from their families and transported by the thousands to concentration camps, or 'ghettos.'
'Ghettoization:' the Nazis established 356 ghettos between 1939 and 1945. The smallest held 3,000 people, the largest 400,000.
As Germany expanded, more Jews came under the rule of Hitler’s Empire (the Third Reich) and he wanted to concentrate them. He did so by putting them in ghettos - large areas that were filled with many Jewish people and guarded by German soldiers.
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Rounding up the Jews.
Concentration Camps: Jewish people were used as slave labourers and given very little to eat; others were used in unethical medical experiments.
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Starving detained children.
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Children at Auschwitz used in medical experiments.
Living conditions: filthy, with poor sanitation. Extreme overcrowding forced many people to share a room. Disease was rampant. Staying warm was difficult during bitter cold winters without adequate warm clothes and heating fuel. Food was in such short supply that many slowly starved to death.
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Living in the ghettos.
The Final Solution (Endlösung) was the Nazi’s plan to exterminate all European Jewish people. There is much debate by historians about when Hitler’s Final Solution became a planned operation.
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Digging a mass grave for the bodies.
Concentration Camps
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Jews were either sent into gas chambers by the hundred, starved or beaten to death. The first to be killed were those who were too young or frail to work. Bodies were burned in large ovens or thrown into mass graves.
Gas chambers were developed in 1939, as Nazi soldiers struggled with shooting women and children, and death by gas was considered a more humane way of killing. It was first designed to carry out the Nazi policy of 'unworthy life,' meaning those in mental hospitals.The first gassing occurred on October 15, 1939 on a group of Polish mental patients.
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Ovens where bodies were cremated.
Death Toll: an estimated 6 million Jews were murdered (two-fifths of total Jewish population around the world.) Plus another 5 million 'others.'
Adolf Hitler: (1889-1945) an Austrian-born politician who led the Nazi Party.
In Mein Kampf, Hitler stated that "rational anti-Semitism must lead to a systematic legal opposition and elimination of the special privileges which Jews hold... Its final objective must unswervingly be the removal of the Jews altogether."
August 22, 1939: Hitler authorized his commanders, with these infamous words, to kill "without pity or mercy, all men, women, and children of Polish descent or language. Only in this way can we obtain the living space [lebensraum] we need".
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Heinrich Luitpold Himmler: (1900-1945) oversaw all police and security forces including the Gestapo as Reichsführer-SS.
Followed Hitler's line of thinking: "All Poles will disappear from the world.... It is essential that the great German people should consider it as its major task to destroy all Poles." All Poles suffered during the Holocaust, Jewish and non-Jewish.
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Hermann Göring: (1893-1946) created the Gestapo on April 26, 1933, in the German state of Prussia. Instrumental in mistreatment of Jews; committed suicide two hours before his scheduled execution.
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National Socialist German Workers Party: a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. It was known as the German Workers Party (DAP) before the name was changed in 1920.
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Nazi Supporters: people from all levels of society collaborated with the Nazi's to rid the nation of the 'Jewish vermin.'
After liberation, many Jewish survivors feared to return to their former homes because of the anti- Semitism that persisted in parts of Europe and the trauma they had suffered. Tens of thousands of homeless Holocaust survivors migrated westward to other European territories liberated by the western Allies. Some Jewish refugees in Europe emigrated as displaced persons or refugees to Canada, Australia, New Zealand, western Europe, Mexico, South America, and South Africa.
Israel in Palestine
The British restricted immigration to Palestine, but refugees formed their own organizations, and many laboured for the establishment of an independent Jewish state in Palestine.With the establishment of the State of Israel in May 1948, Jewish displaced persons and refugees began streaming into the new sovereign state.
Holocaust Memorial Museum
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Yad Vashem
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Oskar Schindler
Schindler's List
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Hanna's Suitcase
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A total of 25 million lives were lost because of Hitler and the Nazi forces.
index_img23.gif 5. Concentration Camps
Began as a system of repression directed against political opponents of the Nazi state.
Early years of the Third Reich: camps were mainly for Communists and Socialists.
1935: Concentration camps began to imprison those who were considered racially inferior or politically unacceptable.
World War II: "Final Solution:" Nazi camp system expanded; purpose changed from imprisonment to forced labor and murder.
Nuremberg Laws
Deprived Jews of their rights as human beings.
Six specialized death camps were created to handle the mass murder: Auschwitz-Birkenau, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor, and Treblinka.
Between 1933 and 1945, approximately 18 million were sent to extermination camps.
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Historians estimate: between five and eleven million were systematically exterminated in the gas chamber/crematorium system of the camps (up to 25,000 each day); most were Jews.
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Nazi T-4 Euthanasia Program
1939-45: Created for the medical killing of mentally and physically disabled patients without their knowledge; rationalized as the elimination of "life unworthy of life."
"Between December 1939 and August 1941, about 50,000 to 60,000 Germans-- children and adults--were secretly killed by lethal injections or in gassing installations designed to look like shower stalls. It was a foretast of Auschwitz. The victims were taken from the medical institution and put to death."
-Milton Meltzer
By the end of WWII (1945), all concentration camps were shut down.
Maria's Story
index_img25.gif 6. Hitler's Last Stand
Hitler's Last Stand
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Hitler's Army begins to be squeezed inward from the east and the west. Defeat was inevitable though Hitler refused to accept it.
July 20, 1944: Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg placed a briefcase containing a bomb beside Hitler during a map room meeting in Prussia. The briefcase was moved shortly before, Hitler injured though survived the assignation attempt. 5000 officers were suspected conspirators and were executed
Operation Overlord (August 15, 1944) started to push north, by late fall Paris had been liberated. Allies would not except any but a unconditional surrender.
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The Third Reich is Destroyed
The Third Reich, which Hitler had boasted would last 1000 years was over by 1945. Hitler contemplated whether to surrender or prolong the war.
April 22: Hitler realized his defeat; he abandoned all his powers, only to resume them the following day.
April 24: Soviet and American troops met at Torgau on the river Elbe in central Germany. By this time the Italian front had collapse.
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Soviets construct a war memorial in Berlin, 1945.
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Victory in Europe Day, May 8, 1945: German forces surrender unconditionally, after Hitler's death.
Hitler's Death
April 30, 1945. Mystery surrounds the method of Hitler's Death. Theories include: 1. He ate poison and shot himself at the same time. 2. He ate poison, but didn't shoot himself. 3. He shot himself, but didn't take poison. 4. One of Hitler's supposed "doubles" was killed, creating the illusion Hitler was dead, allowing the "real" Adolf Hitler to escape. 5. Somebody else killed Hitler.
The most common beliefs:
Hitler and his mistress poisoned themselves.
The end of Hitler's reign was inevitable, thus causing him and his longtime mistress, Eva Braun, to commit suicide. In the Führer's underground bunker, they ingested cyanide, and instructed Hitler's military aid and staff members to burn their bodies. After the Soviets invaded the bunker, they stole the bodies and performed an autopsy. No visible gunshot wounds existed, though part of Hitler's cranium was missing. The Russians had already buried bodies believed to have belonged to Hitler and Braun, but after A meticulous comparison of Hitler's dental records and the teeth found on the corpse, The Soviets were convinced that they had found the body of the Führer.
Hitler shot himself, while Braun ingested poison.
Hitler was determined to remain in Berlin until the very end; his staff attempted to convince him to escape to the mountains, but he refused. Göring took this opportunity to request leadership of the Reich, thus committing 'high treason' according to Hitler. On April 28, news came that Himmler had sought negotiations with the Allies and had even offered to surrender German armies in the west to Eisenhower. That night, Hitler and Braun had a hasty marriage. By April 29, the Soviets were a mile away from the Führer's bunker. Hitler and his wife enjoyed a last meal before returning to the bunker, alone. Their military aides later entered to find Hitler dead and bleeding from a gunshot, while Braun has died from cyanide poisoning. Their bodies were carried to the roof of the Chancellery garden and burned repetitively. Their ashes were buried in a shell crater. It is rumoured that the Soviets found these ashes, but no one knows for sure.