Art of the 1900's
German Romantic Art Famous Artists Neoclassicism Romantic Art in France English  Romantic Art
1. German Romantic Art
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German culture was at its Golden age from the mid 18th century throughout the mid 19th century.
The field of Art also developed abundantly during this period.
Likewise France, which experienced the great Revolution and the Napoleon War, the influence of neo-classicism also entered Germany.
In the field of painting, many classic landscapes were painted that has great influence from Nicolas Poussin and Claude Lorrain of the 17th century.
The Death of Germanicus (1627)
L'Enfance de Bacchus
One of Nicolas Poussin's landscape with polyphemus
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2. Famous Artists
index_img1.gif Jean-Auguste Ingres (1780-1867)
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Francisco de Goya (1746-1828) (Ingres flirted with romanticism, Goya lived it.)
Highly influenced by classicism.
Became leader of academic painters, who disapproved of the art of Delacroix and Gericault, who were painting in a freer, more romantic style.
Ingres is important because of his portraits of the influential people of his time.
index_img2.gif His portrait of Napoleon as emperor is an interesting counterpart to David's portrait of Napoleon as Conqueror.
Both artists capture Napoleon's view of himself at different times in his life
David portrays the romantic heroic aspects of young Napoleon which captured Beethoven's imagination.
Ingres portrays Napoleon the emperor as rigid, self-satisfied, and perhaps even contemptuous of the spirit of the romantics
Ingres's most famous and beloved works are his Odalisques, these nudes are painted in a style recalling the Renaissance, particularly Raphael;the subjects, women.
It reflects the romantic penchant for the exotic, even when erotic elements of romantic thought.
His art provokes on immediate intellectual reaction, a closer look takes one into a purely romantic world.
index_img3.gif Francisco de Goya (1746-1828)
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Theodore Gericault (1791-1824) (whereas Goya the Spiniard vilified Napoleon, Gericault glorified him. )
Witness to the brutality of the Napoleonic occupation in his country.
Is the antithesis of Ingres's ideal classical world.
He was truly a romantic hero in his defiance of the strong authoritarian regime that ruled Spain at this time.
Spent several years as court painter to the Spanish King Charles IV.
His series of engravings, The Disasters of the War, is a collection of prints that depict the horror and cruelty inflicted upon Spain by Napoleon. ( the hyperlink displays the infamous execution of Spanish rebels by French soldiers on the 3rd of May, 1808)
The Disasters of War Plate 39
Great Deeds Against the Dead
Goya's most powerful indictment is his painting The Third of May, 1808, which depicts a firing squad executing a group executing a group a Spanish citizens in retaliation for shooting incident.
graphicGoya has dramatically reduced the pace between the firing squad and its victims, emphasizing the contrast between the faceless dehumanized soldiers and the group of townspeople anticipating death.  Central to the painting is the man in the white shirt, who flings his arms open in gesture of defiance and despair.  The third of May, 1808 has become an icon of the horror and brutality of war. Goya's dark vision rejected the eighteenth-century view of humanity as reasoned and the nineteenth- century view of humanity as naturally good.
index_img4.gif Theodore Gericault (1791-1824)
Fascinated by the darkness of the human spirit and death was Theodore Gericault.
Depicted the events of his time on huge canvases.(celebrated was as a glorious experience.
His work was powerful and appealed to people because they were an escape from reality, though they depicted real events.
The Raft of Medusa (most famous and challenging work)
The Raft of Medusa is Gericaults most famous and most challenging work.  The events portrayed was a shocking a revelation, the scandalous and horrific details of which were reported in the contemporary. 
The story behind the painting is of a slave ship which was foundering in heavy seas,built a raft in which to tow excess human cargo and thus lighten the ship load.  The crew cut the ropes holding the raft and the slaves were left to drift and die.  But, there were survivors of the ordeal who lives to tell their horrifying tale, which included cannibalism.  Gericault decided to record the event as graphically as possible.  He actually had the original carpenter reconstruct the raft.
Painter who exerted a seminal influence on the developments of romantic art in France.
3. Neoclassicism
Neoclassicm is a severe, unemotional form of art harkening back to the style of ancient Greece and Rome.  Its rigidity was a reaction to the overbred Rococo style and the emotional Boroque style.  THe rise of Neoclassical Art was a part of a general revival of classical thought, which was of some importance to the American and French revolutions.
Important Neoclassicists include the architects Robert Adam and Robert Smirke, the sculptors Antonio Canova, Bertel Thorvaldsen, and the painters Anton Raphael Mengs, Jean-Auguste - Dominique Ingres and Jaques-Louis David.
index_img5.gif Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825)
Paris & Helen, 1788
Marat, 1793
index_img6.gif J.A.D. Ingres (1781-1863)
             Jupiter & Thetis
Around 1800, Romanticism emerged as a reaction to Neoclassicism. It did not really replace Neoclassicism style so much as act as a counterbalancing influence, and many artists were influenced by both styles to some degree.
Neoclassical Art was also a substantial direct influence of 19th century Academic Art.
4. Romantic Art in France
index_img7.gif Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863)
Delacroix was born at Chareton Saint-Maurice, near Paris. Throughout his career as a painter, he was protected by the Telleyrand who served successively the Restoration and Kinf Louis- Philippe, and ultimately as ambassador of France in Great Britain, and later by Talleyrand's grandson, duke of Morny, half brother of Napoleon III and speaker of the French house of commons.
His early education was at Lycee Louis -le-Grand, where he steeped himself in the classics and won awards for drawing. In 1815 he began his training with Pierre-Narcisse Huerin in the neoclassical style of Jacques -Louis David.  The Impacts of Gericault's Raft of Medusa was profound, and stimulated Delacroix to produce his first major painting, The Barque of Dante, which was accepted by the Paris Salon in 1822.
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Theodore Gericault (1791-1824) (both depicted epic scenes of human sufferings, whether real, imagined or inspired by literature.)
Eugene Delacroix admired the work of Gericault, but he if generally considered to have moved beyond him in his vision of human nature, death and suffering.
Like so many of the romantics, he wanted to shock and thrill his viewers in order to capture their imaginations and inspire passion and fear.
Two of Delacroix's great works, on that inspires and one that shocks, are Liberty Leading the People and The Death of Sarandapolus (1828).
graphic  The Death of Sarandapolus meant to shock and thrill viewers with its graphic display of barbarism.
graphic  Liberty is an allegorical figure commemorating the Parisian revolution of 1830. The picture tells a story , although it records no actual incident.  Liberty is symbolized by a partially holding the flag of the revolution and is surrounded by the different types of people who become revolutionaries; a young street boy, a rich dandy, a poor old man. There are reflections of Gericaults Raft of Medusa here as Liberty moves through the dead and dying .  Both figures are strong symbols of hope in the face of impending death.  Delacroix's picture reveals the political atmosphere of the early nineteenth century as one of the tension and revolt in all aspects of society.
5. English Romantic Art
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Romantic Art in France (Romantcism between English, French and German Art.)
There is an enormous difference between English and French romantic art.
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Romantic Art in France (where the French depicted emotion and action through narrative paintings the English and German painters conveyed their feelings through landscapes.)
index_img8.gif English romantic painting is much more akin to the works of the German romantic painters like Kaspar David Friedrich(1774-1840)
graphic  Friedrich was born on September 5, 1774, in Greifswald and studied at the Copenhagen Academy.  In 1789 he settled in Dresden, where he became a member of an artistic and literary circle imbued with the ideals of the romantic movement.  His early drawings , precisely outlines in pencil or sepia- he explored motifs recurrent throughout his work: rocky beaches, flat, barren plains, infinite mountain ranges, and trees reaching toward the sky. 
       He began to paint in oils in 1807; one of his first canvases, The Cross in the Mountains , is representative of his mature style.  A bold break from tradition religious  painting, this work is almost pure landscape; the figure of the crucified Christ, seen from behind and silhouetted against a mountain sunset, is almost lost in natural meanings. 
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German Romantic Art (Friedrich contributed to German Romantic Art)
Kaspar David Friedrich was an outstanding 19th century German romantic painter whose awesome landscaped and seascapes are not only meticulous observation of nature but also allegories.
Couple Gazing at the Moon
The Cross on the Mountain
Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog
The Tree of Crows
English and German painters conveyed their feelings through natural landscapes.
This is of course allied to the powerful romantic movement in literature- specifically the nature poetry of Wordsworth and Coleridge.
The two great English landscape painters for us to consider are John Constable and Joseph Turner.